Annual Financial Statements

Financial Statements for the year ended 31 December 2005

Accounting Policies

The annual financial statements are prepared in accordance with the Group's accounting policies which comply fully with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The Group is reporting under IFRS for the first time for the year ended 31 December 2005. The transition to IFRS is accounted for in terms of IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards, with 1 January 2004 as the date of transition. Comparative figures have accordingly been restated.

The disclosures required by IFRS 1 concerning the transition from South African Statements of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice to IFRS are provided in note 1.

Further, note 33 provides details of new or revised standards that, in terms of the transition dates, have not yet been adopted.


The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the company and of its subsidiaries, except those foreign subsidiaries and associates where the assessment of effective operational and financial control does not meet the criteria for consolidation in terms of IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements, principally as it relates to Triangle Sugar Limited in Zimbabwe. The interest in such foreign subsidiaries is included at cost less provisions and amounts written off or at fair value, and results are accounted for in operating profit only to the extent that dividends, net of any withholding taxes, are received. The results of all other subsidiaries are included from the date effective control was acquired and up to the date effective control ceased. Investments in joint ventures are accounted for on the proportionate consolidation method from the effective date of acquisition and up to the effective date of disposal. All material intra-group balances and transactions are eliminated. Results of subsidiaries are not equity accounted in the holding company's financial statements.

Minority interests in the net assets of consolidated subsidiaries are identified separately from the Group's equity therein. The interests of minority shareholders is initially measured at the date of acquisition at the minority's proportion of the net fair value of the assets and liabilities acquired and thereafter, the minority's share of changes in equity since the date of acquisition. Losses applicable to the minority in excess of the

minority's interest in the subsidiary's equity are allocated against the interests of the Group except to the extent that the minority has a binding obligation and the financial ability to cover losses.


Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, including refurbishment, less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Cost includes the estimated cost of dismantling and removing the assets. Interest and other costs incurred on major capital projects are capitalised until all the activities necessary to prepare assets for their intended use are substantially complete.

Assets held under finance lease agreements are capitalised at fair value and the corresponding liabilities to the lessor are raised. Lease finance charges are charged to earnings over the term of the relevant lease using the effective interest rate method.

Land and capital work in progress are not depreciated. All other fixed assets, including major factory overhaul costs, are depreciated and charged to profit or loss over their expected useful lives to estimated residual values at rates appropriate to their use. Where significant parts of an item have different useful lives to the item itself, these parts are depreciated over their estimated useful lives. The methods of depreciation, useful lives and residual values are reviewed annually.

During the year under review, property, plant and equipment were depreciated on the straight line basis using the rates set out below:

     Buildings 30 to 50 years
Plant and equipment 4 to 40 years
Vehicles 4 to 12 years
Furniture and equipment 3 to 10 years

On the disposal or scrapping of property, plant and equipment, the gain or loss arising thereon is recognised in profit or loss.


An intangible asset is an identifiable non-monetary asset without physical substance. Intangible assets are measured initially at cost. After initial recognition, an intangible asset is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation. An intangible asset with a finite useful life is amortised. An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life is not amortised, but is tested annually for impairment. When an intangible asset is disposed of, the gain or loss on disposal is recognised in profit or loss.


Growing crops comprise roots and standing cane, and are valued at fair value determined as follows:


Goodwill arising on the acquisition of a subsidiary or a jointly controlled entity represents the excess of the cost of acquisition over the Group's interest in the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the subsidiary or jointly controlled entity recognised at the date of acquisition. Goodwill is initially recognised as an asset at cost. It is subsequently measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses and is not amortised.


Associates are those companies, which are not subsidiaries or joint ventures, over which the Group exercises significant influence. Results of associates are equity accounted. Any losses of associates are brought to account until the investment in, and loans to, such associates are written down to a nominal amount. Thereafter losses are accounted for only insofar as the Group is committed to providing financial support to such associates.

The carrying value of investments in associates represents the cost of each investment including goodwill, the share of post acquisition retained income or losses and other movements in reserves.


Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value determined in general on the first-in-first-out and average methods. The cost of finished goods and work in progress comprises direct materials, labour and appropriate overhead costs. Progress payments are deducted from work in progress where applicable. Development properties comprise land valued at cost and development expenditure attributable to unsold properties. Obsolete and slow moving inventories are identified and suitable reductions in value are made where necessary.


Certain maize purchase commitments are recognised as constructive obligations. Maize that relates to such a constructive obligation is recognised as inventory, the related liability is recognised as a current liability and to the extent that the final purchase price includes a financing element, this is recognised as interest over the period of the obligation.


Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from goodwill (or negative goodwill) or from the initial recognition (other than a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction, which does not affect either taxable profit or accounting profit.


At each balance sheet date, the Group reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists the recoverable amount of the asset, being the higher of its net selling price and its value in use, is assessed in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss, if any.

If the recoverable amount of an asset is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, its carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognised as an expense immediately and are treated as exceptional items.


Expenditure on research is charged to profit or loss in the year in which it is incurred. Development costs are reviewed annually and are expensed if they do not qualify for capitalisation. The amount of development cost recognised as an asset is amortised over the estimated useful life of the related development but not exceeding five years.


Revenue comprises sales arising from normal trading activities excluding intra-group transactions and is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of the goods are transferred to the buyer. In respect of the sale of township properties, sales are recognised when the relevant agreements are unconditional and binding on the purchaser, the purchaser has paid a meaningful deposit or has made arrangements to secure payment of the purchase price, zoning and final conditions of establishment have been obtained and servicing arrangements and costs are substantially finalised. In the determination of revenue VAT is excluded.


The functional currency of each entity within the Group is determined based on the currency of the primary economic environment in which that entity operates. Transactions in currencies other than the entity's functional currency are recognised at the rates of exchange ruling on the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in such currencies are translated at the rates ruling at the balance sheet date.

Gains and losses arising on exchange differences are recognised in profit or loss.

The financial statements of entities within the Group whose functional currencies are different to the Group's presentation currency, which is South African Rand, are translated as follows:

Resulting exchange differences are classified as a foreign currency translation reserve and recognised directly in equity. On disposal of such an entity, this reserve is recognised in profit or loss.



A financial asset or financial liability is recognised on the balance sheet for as long as the Group is a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Purchases of derivatives are recognised on trade date and sales are recognised on settlement date. Gains or losses on derecognition of financial assets or liabilities are recognised in profit or loss.


Financial instruments are initially measured at cost, including directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition these instruments are measured as follows:

Gains or losses on subsequent measurement

Gains or losses on subsequent measurement of financial instruments that are carried at fair value, and are not part of a hedging relationship, are accounted for as follows:

For the purposes of hedge accounting, hedges are classified into two categories:

In relation to fair value hedges, which meet the conditions for hedge accounting, any gain or loss from remeasuring the hedging instrument to fair value is recognised in profit or loss for the period. Any gain or loss on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk is adjusted against the carrying amount of the hedged item and recognised in profit or loss for the period.

In relation to cash flow hedges, which meet the conditions for hedge accounting, the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge is recognised directly in shareholders' equity and the ineffective portion is recognised in profit or loss for the period. For cash flow hedges affecting future transactions, the gains or losses, which are recognised in shareholders' equity, are transferred to profit or loss in the same period in which the hedged transaction affects profit or loss. Where the hedged transaction results in the recognition of an asset or a liability, then at the time the asset or liability is recognised, the associated gain or loss that had previously been recognised in shareholders' equity is included in the initial measurement of the acquisition cost or other carrying amount of the asset or liability.


Where the redemption of debt, raised for major capital projects, is provided for by sinking funds or financial instruments which allow for the legal right of set-off against the debt on the repayment date, and it is expected that the debt will be settled in this way, the related income statement, cash flow statement and balance sheet items are set off.


Government grants are assistance by government in the form of transfers of resources to an entity in return for past or future compliance with certain conditions relating to the operating activities of the entity. When the conditions attaching to government grants have been complied with they are recognised in profit or loss. When they are for expenses or losses already incurred, they are recognised immediately in profit or loss.


Retirement funds

The assets of the Group's defined benefit scheme and defined contribution schemes are held separately from those of the Group and are administered and controlled by trustees.

The Surplus Apportionment Plan is lying open for inspection before submission to the Financial Services Board, as required by law. Accordingly, due to the uncertainty regarding apportionment, no surplus has been recognised on the Group's balance sheet.

Contributions to defined contribution schemes are charged to profit or loss when incurred.

Post-retirement medical aid benefits and retirement gratuities

Provision is made for post-retirement medical aid benefits and gratuities payable on retirement and is based on the present value of those liabilities for services rendered to date as determined by independent actuaries. Actuarial gains and losses are amortised over the expected average remaining lives of participants beginning in the year that the actuarial gain or loss arises.


The company enters into share-based payment transactions in terms of the employee share incentive schemes. The charge to profit or loss required by IFRS 2 Share-based Payment is accounted for on the basis that the instruments are equity-settled. The total amount to be expensed on a straight line basis over the vesting period is determined by reference to the fair value of the awards determined at the grant date. Non-market vesting conditions are included in assumptions about the number of awards that are expected to become due, including taking into account the forfeiture of instruments due to resignation and these assumptions are reviewed on an annual basis. The fair value of the share-based payment is measured using a binomial tree model and/or a Monte Carlo Simulation model, as is appropriate for the various schemes.