Annual Financial Statements

Financial Statements for the year ended 31 December 2002

Accounting Policies
Accounting Policies
The accounting policies of the Group conform with South African Statements of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice and, except for changes detailed below, are consistent with those applied in the previous year.

Changes in Accounting Policies

The Group has adopted AC 423 (Property, Plant and Equipment: Major Inspection or Overhaul Costs) and AC 137 (Agriculture) and as a consequence no longer accounts for its sugar operations on a seasonal basis. In addition maize futures and option contracts are accounted for as derivatives or cash flow hedges where the requirements for hedge accounting have been met. 

Basis of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the company and of its subsidiaries, except those foreign subsidiaries where, in the opinion of the directors, there is uncertainty as to the recovery of profits or remittance of dividends. The investment in such foreign subsidiaries is included at cost less provisions and amounts written off, and results are accounted for only to the extent that dividends, net of any withholding taxes, are received. The results of all other subsidiaries are included from the dates effective control was acquired and up to the dates effective control ceased. Investments in joint ventures are accounted for on the proportionate consolidation method from the effective dates of acquisition and up to the effective dates of disposal. All material intra-group balances and transactions are eliminated. Results of subsidiaries are not equity accounted in the holding company's financial statements.

Discontinuing Operations

Discontinuing operations are significant, distinguishable components of the Group that have been sold, abandoned or are the subject of formal plans for disposal or discontinuance. Once an operation is identified as discontinuing it is treated as such. 

Property, Plant and Equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Interest and other costs incurred on major capital projects are capitalised until all the activities necessary to prepare assets for their intended use are substantially complete. 

Assets held under finance lease agreements are capitalised at fair value and the corresponding liabilities to the lessor are raised. Lease finance charges are charged to earnings over the term of the relevant lease using the effective interest rate method. 

Land and capital work in progress are not depreciated. Major capital projects when brought into use are depreciated using the units of production method until 80 percent of design capacity is achieved. All other fixed assets, including major factory overhaul costs, are depreciated on the straight line basis, over their expected useful lives to estimated residual values at rates appropriate to their use. 

Growing Crops

Growing crops comprise roots and standing cane, are valued at fair value determined as follows: 

  • roots - at current replacement cost of planting and establishment and subsequently reduced in value over the period of their productive lives;
  • standing cane - at the estimated sucrose content less harvesting, transport and over-the-weighbridge costs.


Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of acquisition of subsidiaries and joint ventures over the Group's share of the fair value of the net assets at the date of acquisition. Only goodwill occurring on or after 1 January 1999 is reported in the balance sheet. Goodwill is amortised over its estimated useful life up to a maximum of 20 years. 

Associate Companies

Associates are those companies, which are not subsidiaries or joint ventures, over which the Group exercises significant influence. Results of associates are equity accounted. Any losses of associates are brought to account until the investment in, and loans to, such associates are written down to a nominal amount. Thereafter losses are accounted for only insofar as the Group is committed to providing financial support to such associates.

The carrying value of investments in associates represents the cost of each investment including unamortised goodwill, the share of post acquisition retained earnings or losses and other movements in reserves. 


Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realisable value determined in general on the first-in-first-out and average methods. The cost of finished goods and work in progress comprises direct materials, labour and a portion of manufacturing overhead costs. Progress payments are deducted from work in progress where applicable. Development properties comprise land at cost and development expenditure attributable to unsold properties. Obsolete and slow moving inventories are identified and suitable reductions in value are made where necessary. 

Deferred Tax

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from goodwill (or negative goodwill) or from the initial recognition (other than a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction, which does not affect either taxable profit or accounting earnings. 


At each balance sheet date, the Group reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists the recoverable amount of the asset, being the higher of its net selling price and its value in use, is assessed in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss, if any.  

If the recoverable amount of an asset is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, its carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognised as an expense immediately and are treated as exceptional items. 


Revenue comprises sales arising from normal trading activities excluding intra-group transactions and is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of the goods are transferred to the buyer. In the determination of revenue VAT is excluded. 

Research and Development

Expenditure on research is charged to earnings in the year in which it is incurred. Development costs are reviewed annually and are expensed if they do not qualify for capitalisation. The amount of development cost recognised as an asset is amortised over the estimated useful life of the related development but not exceeding five years. 

Foreign Currencies

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded at the rates of exchange ruling at the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at rates of exchange ruling at the year end. Gains or losses arising on translation of foreign currency transactions are included in earnings. The financial statements of consolidated foreign subsidiaries are translated as follows: 

  • In the case of those subsidiaries classified as independent foreign entities, assets and liabilities are translated at rates of exchange ruling at the year end. Income, expenditure and cash flow items are translated using the average rate for the year. Differences arising on translation of these entities are reflected in non-distributable reserves.
  • In the case of subsidiaries classified as integrated foreign operations, non-monetary assets are translated at rates of exchange ruling at the time of acquisition, whereas monetary assets and liabilities are translated at rates of exchange at the year end. Income, expenditure and cash flow items are translated using the average rate for the year. Differences arising on translation of these operations are included in earnings.

Financial Instruments

A financial asset or financial liability is recognised on the balance sheet for as long as the Group is a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Purchases of derivatives are recognised on trade date and sales are recognised on settlement date. Gains or losses on derecognition of financial assets or liabilities are recognised in earnings. 


Financial instruments are initially measured at cost, including directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition these instruments are measured as follows: 

  • Trade and other receivables originated by the Group are held at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method, after deducting accumulated impairment losses. Receivables with no fixed maturity are held at cost.
  • Held-to-maturity investments are held at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method after deducting accumulated impairment losses.
  • Held-for-trading and available-for-sale financial assets are held at fair value.
  • Financial liabilities are measured at amortised cost, except for held-for-trading financial liabilities and derivatives, which are held at fair value.


Gains or losses on subsequent measurement of financial instruments that are carried at fair value, and are not part of a hedging relationship, are accounted for as follows: 

  • Held-for-trading financial assets are recognised in earnings for the year.
  • Available-for-sale financial assets are taken to equity until the financial asset is disposed of, or determined to be impaired, at which time the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in equity is included in earnings for the year.

For the purposes of hedge accounting, hedges are classified into two categories: 

  • Fair value hedges, which hedge the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognised asset or liability; and
  • Cash flow hedges, which hedge exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability or a forecasted transaction.

In relation to fair value hedges, which meet the conditions for hedge accounting, any gain or loss from remeasuring the hedging instrument to fair value is recognised in earnings for the period. Any gain or loss on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk is adjusted against the carrying amount of the hedged item and recognised in earnings for the period.

In relation to cash flow hedges, which meet the conditions for hedge accounting, the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge is recognised directly in shareholders' equity and the ineffective portion is recognised in earnings for the period. For cash flow hedges affecting future transactions, the gains or losses, which are recognised in shareholders' equity, are transferred to earnings in the same period in which the hedged transaction affects earnings. Where the hedged transaction results in the recognition of an asset or a liability, then at the time the asset or liability is recognised, the associated gains or losses that had previously been recognised in shareholders' equity are included in the initial measurement of the acquisition cost or other carrying amount of the asset or liability. 


Where the redemption of debt, raised for major capital projects, is provided for by sinking funds or financial instruments which allow for the contractual right of set-off against the debt on the repayment date, and it is expected that the debt will be settled in this way, the related income statement, cash flow statement and balance sheet items are set off.

Employee Benefits 


The assets of the Group's defined benefit scheme and defined contribution schemes are held separately from those of the Group and are administered and controlled by trustees. 

Surpluses arising in the defined benefit scheme are not recognised on the balance sheet of the Group because of the uncertainty as to the entitlement thereto because the regulations required to quantify and apportion the surplus in terms of the Pensions Fund Second Amendment Act have not yet been promulgated. 

Contributions to defined contribution schemes are charged against earnings when incurred.


Provision is made for post-retirement medical aid benefits and gratuities payable on retirement and is based on the present value of those liabilities for services rendered to date as determined by independent actuaries. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised over the lesser of ten years or the employees' average remaining working lives.